Pauka Urolithin

Loaʻa iā Cofftek ka hiki i ka hana nui a me ka hoʻolako ʻana o urolithin a a me urolithin b ma lalo o ke ʻano o cGMP.

Hoʻomanaʻo iā Urolithins

ʻO Urolithins nā metabolite lua o ka ellagic acid i loaʻa mai nā ellagitannins. I ke kanaka ellagitannins hoʻololi ʻia e ka ʻōpū microflora i ellagic acid i hoʻololi hou ʻia i mau urolithins A, urolithin B, urolithin C a me urolithin D i loko o nā ʻōpū nui.

ʻO Urolithin A (UA) ka metabolite nui o ellagitannins. Eia nō naʻe, ʻaʻole ʻike ʻia ka urolithin A e kūlohelohe i nā ʻano papaʻai.

ʻO Urolithin B (UB) kahi metabolite nui i hana ʻia i loko o ka ʻōpū ma o ka loli ʻana o ellagitannins. ʻO Urolithin B ka huahana hope loa ma hope o ka catabolized nā derivatives urolithin ʻē aʻe. ʻIke ʻia ʻo Urolithin B i ka mimi ma ke ʻano he urolithin B glucuronide.

  ʻO Urolithin A 8-Methyl Ether ka huahana waena i ka wā o ka synthesive o Urolithin A. He metabolite lua nui ia o ellagitannin a loaʻa iā ia nā antioxidant a me nā anti-inflammatory.

ʻO ka hana o ka urolithin A a me B

● ʻO Urolithin A hoʻokomo i ka mitophagy
ʻO Mitophagy kekahi o ka autophagy e kōkua ana i ka hoʻopauʻana i ka mitochondrial i hōʻino ʻia no ko lākou hana maikaʻi loa. ʻO Autophagy e pili ana i ke kaʻina aoao ma kahi o nā maʻi cytoplasmic i hoʻokaʻawale a hoʻoiho ʻia a ʻo ka molophagy ka hōʻemi a me ka hana hou ʻana o ka mitochondria.

I ka wā ʻelemakule ka hoʻemi ʻana i ka autophagy kekahi ʻano e alakaʻi ana i ka hōʻemi o ka hana mitochondrial. Eia hou, hiki i ke koʻikoʻi oxidative ke alakaʻi i ka autophagy haʻahaʻa. Loaʻa iā Urolithin A ka hiki ke hoʻopau i ka mitochondria poino ma o ka autophagy wae.

● Nā waiwai Antioxidant
Ka pōkole ʻo Oxidative i ka wā i loaʻa ʻole ka palupalu ma waena o nā mea manuahi a me nā antioxidant i loko o ke kino. Hoʻopili pinepine ʻia kēia mau leʻa manuahi manuahi me ka nui o nā maʻi maʻi like ʻole i ka maʻi cardiac, ka maʻi diabetes a me nā maʻi maʻi.

Hōʻike ka urolithins A a me B i nā hopena antioxidant ma o kā lākou hiki ke hoʻēmi i nā radical manuahi a hoʻomākaʻi ʻia nā pae o ka oxygen acid reactelellular (ROS) a hoʻoneʻe pū kekahi i ka lipid peroxidation i kekahi mau cell cell.

Eia hou, hiki i nā urolithins ke kāohi i kekahi o nā oxidizing enzymes, me monoamine oxidase A a me tyrosinase.

● Nā ʻano anti-inflammatory
ʻO ka hoʻāla kahi hana kūlohelohe e hakakā ai ko mākou kino i nā mea hāʻule e like me nā maʻi, nā ʻeha, a me nā microbes. Eia nō naʻe, hiki i ka mumū mau ke hōʻeha i ke kino no ka mea pili kēia i nā ʻano maʻi like ʻole me ka hānō, nā pilikia puʻuwai, a me ka maʻi ʻaʻai. Hiki ke hana i ka mumū mau ma muli o ka luhi ʻole ʻia o ka huehue, nā maʻi a i ʻole nā ​​radical manuahi i loko o ke kino.

Hōʻike ka Urolithins A a me B i nā waiwai anti-inflammatory e ka pale ʻana i ka hana nitric oxide. Hoʻopili maoli lākou i ka momona o ka nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein a me ka hōʻike mRNA i kuleana no ka mumū.

● Nā hopena anti-microbial
ʻO nā mikrobī e pili ana i nā huakini, nā fungi a me nā maʻi āpau e kū maoli i ka kaiapuni a hiki i ke kino kanaka. Eia nō naʻe, he mau microbes i ʻōlelo ʻia i nā pathogens i hiki ke hōʻeha i nā maʻi maʻi e like me ka maʻi kala, ka nui a me ka malaria.

Hiki i ka Urolithin A me B ke hōʻike i ka hana antimicrobial ma o ka pale ʻana i ka ʻike o ka lālā. ʻO ka sensing o ke kolamu kahi ʻano o ka maʻi bacterial e hiki ai i ka huikau ke nānā a kāohi i nā hanana pili i nā maʻi e like me ka virulence a me ka motility.

● Ka pāpā ʻana i ka glycation protein
ʻO Glycation e pili ana i ka hoʻopili ʻana ʻole-enzymatic i kahi kōpī i kahi lipid a i ʻole ka protein. He mea nui ia o ka biomarker ma nā maʻi āpau a me nā pilikia ʻē aʻe a me ka wā kahiko.

ʻO ka glycation protein nui ka hopena ma ka hopena o ka hyperglycemia i kahi hana nui i nā maʻi e pili ana i ka cardiovascular e like me ka maʻi maʻi a me ka maʻi Alzheimer.

ʻO Urolithin A lāua ʻo B i loaʻa nā waiwai anti-glycative i hilinaʻi ʻia nā kūmole i kūʻokoʻa i kā lākou antioxidant.

Loaʻa ʻo Urolithin A a me B

He nui nā hopena maikaʻi o nā Urolithins i kākoʻo ʻia e nā hōʻike noiʻi noiʻi e pili ana i ka anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, a me nā antimicrobial. Pili pili pono nā pono ʻo Urolithin A i nā pono urolithin B. Ma lalo iho nei kekahi mau pono i hōʻike ʻia mai nā urolithins;
Urolithin He pōmaikaʻi
(1) Hiki ke hoʻolōʻihi i ke ola
Urolithin ʻO kahi induces mitophagy e kahi koho molina i ka mitochondria i hōʻino ʻia. Mālama kēia i ka hana hou ʻana o ka mitochondria no ka hana pono. E hōʻemi pinepine ʻia ʻo Mitochondria me ka makahiki a ma muli hoʻi o ke kaumaha. Hoʻohana i ka mitochondria poino kūlike i ka hoʻolōʻihi ʻana i ke ola.

Ma ka noiʻi ʻana i nā wīwī, urolithin A supplementation hoʻolako ʻia ma 50 µM mai ka huaʻala o ka hua a hiki i ʻike ʻia ke make e hoʻolōʻihi i ko lākou ola ma ka 45.4%.

Ma kahi noiʻi ʻē aʻe i mālama ʻia ma 2019 me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā fibroblasts kanaka senescent, urolithin A supplement i loaʻa e hōʻike anti-ʻelemakule hiki. Ua hiki ke hoʻonui i ka ʻōlelo 1 collagen expression a hoʻoliʻiliʻi hoʻi i ka ʻōlelo o ka matrix metalloproteinase 1.

Ke hōʻike nei kekahi ʻano liʻiliʻi kanaka i hiki i ka UA ke hiki ke hoʻomaikaʻi i ka hana mitochondrial a me ke olakino o ke olakino i loko o nā kānaka pākeke i ka wā i lawelawe ʻia ai i ka 500-1000mg no ka manawa he mau pule.

(2) Kōkua i ka pale ʻana i ka maʻi ʻaʻai prostate
Loaʻa nā urolithins a me kā lākou mea, ellagitannins i nā waiwai anti-cancer. Hiki iā lākou ke pale aku i ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana o ka maʻi cancer-cell ma o ka hoʻopaʻa hopu ʻana i ke kelepona a me ka hoʻoulu ʻana i ka apoptosis. Wahi a Apoptosis i kahi make kelepona papahana i hoʻokaʻawale ai ke kino i ka maʻi kanesa-a me kekahi mau mea maʻi ʻē aʻe.

I loko o ka noiʻi ʻana i nā pōmole i hoʻopaʻa ʻia me nā cell cancerous kanaka, ua loaʻa nā ellagitannins metabolites (Urolithin A) i mea e pale ai i ka ulu ʻana o ka maʻi prostate. Ua hōʻike hou ʻia ka noiʻi ʻana ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o nā metabolites i nā kūloe prostate, nā mānoanoa a me nā kaina ʻili.

(3) Hoʻonui hoʻonui ʻike
Hiki i ka Urolithin A ke pale i nā neurons mai ka make a hiki nō hoʻi ke hoʻowalewale i ka neurogenesis ma o ka hōʻailona anti-inflammatory.

I loko o ka noiʻi ʻana i nā pōlio me ka hoʻomanaʻo ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo ʻana, ua ʻike ʻia ka urolithin A i ʻike ʻia i ka hōʻea ʻana o ka celitive ameliorate a pale aku i nā neurons mai ka apoptosis. Manaʻo kēia e hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia ʻo UA i ka mālama ʻana i ka maʻi o Alzheimer (AD).

(4) Loaʻa anti-momona
Hōʻike noiʻi hiki i nā ellagitannins ke pale i ka hōʻuluʻulu ʻana o nā lipid a me nā mea hōʻailona adipogenic e like me ka ulu mua ʻana o ka momona protein 2 a me ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ka protein ma o ka hopu ʻana i nā pōʻaiapuni.

Ua ʻike ʻia ka Urolithin A i mea e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka naʻau o ka insulin e pale ai i ke kūkulu ʻana i ka momona.

I loko o kahi haʻawina o nā kiʻi me ka huehue i hoʻohuihui ʻia, urolithin Ua loaʻa kahi hoʻohui i ka pale ʻana i ka momona o ka huehue, a me ka hopena o ka metabolic i nā kiʻi. Ua hōʻike ʻia ʻo ka haʻawina ʻoi aku ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka nui o ka nui o ka lilo o ka nui o ke kino.

Loaʻa ka Urolithin B
Loaʻa i nā mea hoʻopihapiha Urolithin B kekahi mau pono olakino a ʻo ka hapa nui e like me nā pono urolithin A.

(1) Loaʻa i ka pale anti-cancer
ʻO nā waiwai anti-inflammatory o ka urolithin B e lilo i koho maikaʻi no ka hakakā ʻana i ka maʻi kanesa. Ua hōʻike kekahi mau noiʻi i kēia mau mana i nā fibroblasts, nā microphages a me nā cell endothelial.

Ua hōʻike ʻia nā noiʻi ʻana ua UB ka pale ʻana i nā ʻano maʻi like ʻole e like me ka prostate, colon a me nā maʻi maʻi kīnā.

I loko o kahi hoʻokolohua e pili ana i nā pūnaʻi maʻi koleka a nā kānaka, ellagitannins, ellagic acid a me urolithins A a me B i loiloi ʻia no kā lākou anti-cancer. Ua hōʻike lākou he hiki ke mālama ʻia nā lāʻau āpau i ka ulu ʻana o nā ʻōpū o ka maʻi maʻi. Pae lākou i ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana o nā sela kanesa ma o ka hopu ʻana o ke kinipona i nā ʻano like ʻole a me ka hoʻoulu ʻana hoʻi i ka apoptosis.

(2) Hiki iā ia ke kōkua i ke kaua kūpale i ka hoʻoluhi oxidative
Loaʻa iā Urolithin B nā waiwai antioxidant maikaʻi loa ma o ka hōʻemi ʻana i nā pae o nā oxygen o ka reactive a me ka lipid peroxidation i kekahi mau ʻano cell. Pili nā pae kiʻekiʻe o ROS me nā maʻi like ʻole e like me ka maʻi Alzheimer.

I loko o kahi noiʻi me nā selona neuronal i hōʻike ʻia i ke kaumaha o ka oxidative, ʻo ka urolithin B supplementation a me ka urolithin A i ʻike ʻia e pale aku i nā kinipona e pili ana i ka okoa i hoʻonui ʻia i ke ola kūloko.

(3) ʻO Urolithin B i ka hoʻonui hoʻomanaʻo
Ua hōʻike ʻia ʻo Urolithin b ka mea e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka papelima. Hoʻonui kēia i ka hana cognitive.

Hōʻike nā haʻawina e hiki i ka urolithin B hiki i kahi mea hoʻomanaʻo hoʻomanaʻo hoʻomanaʻo i ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ka hana cognitive maʻamau.

(4) Kāohi i ka nalo ʻana o nā mākala
Hiki i ka lilo ʻana o nā ʻōpū ma muli o nā kumu like ʻole e like me ke kīnā, ka pā a me ka hemahema o ka protein i ka meaʻai. ʻO kekahi mau hana e pani ai, kaupalena a ʻoi aku paha i ka pale ʻana i ka hōʻeha ʻana o ka naʻau, komo, nā lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā waʻa amino a me nā polyphenols hiki ke lawelawe ʻia.

Hiki ke helu ʻia ka Urolithins e like me ka polyphenols a hana i ka hana o ka pale ʻana i ka nalowale o ka hoʻi ʻana i ka hoʻāla ʻana i ka synt protein synthesis a hoʻoluliluli hoʻi i ka nāwaliwali.

I ka hana noiʻi ʻana me nā kiole, ua loaʻa i nā lako hui pū ʻia o Urolithin B i mālama ʻia i kahi manawa lōʻihi i hoʻonui ʻia ai ko lākou hoʻomohala ʻana ma muli o ka ʻike ʻana i nā māka.  

(5) Ke kaua nei ʻo Urolithin B me ka hoʻowahāwahā
Loaʻa iā Urolithin B nā waiwai anti-pamamna ma o ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka hapa nui o nā hōʻailona hōʻailona.

 I loko o ka noiʻi ʻana i nā lālani me ka fibrosis renal induced, ua loaʻa ka urolithin B i mea hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ka hōʻeha ʻana o ka ʻeha. Hoʻonui ia i ka hana renal, ka morphology o ka pēpē a me ka hōʻemi i nā hōʻailona hōʻailona hōʻeha. Hōʻike kēia hōʻike i hiki i ka UB ke hōʻemi i ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa renal.

(6) Nā kōkua Synergistic o urolithin A a me B
Ua hōʻike pū ʻia nā hopena Synergistic i kahi hui o urolithin A a me B i ka hana noʻonoʻo a me ka hiki. Ua ʻōlelo ʻia ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia kēia hui ʻana i ka mālama ʻana a i ʻole ka pale ʻana i nā maʻi pili i ka dementia e like me ka hopohopo a i ʻole ka maʻi Alzheimer.

ʻO nā pono ʻē aʻe e pili ana i ka urolithins e;
  • neuroprotection
  • ʻEllelo Ameliorates ʻāhane

ʻO Urolithin A a me nā kumuwaiwai B

ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia ka Urolithins e ʻike maoli i kekahi o nā mea eʻai ai. ʻO ia kahi huahana nā hoʻololi o nā waikawa ellagic i loaʻa mai i ellagitannins. Hoʻololi ʻia ka ellagitannins i loko o nā aka ellagic e ka microbiota kō a ʻo ka ellagic acid e hoʻololi hou ia i loko o kāna mau metabolites (urolithins) i loko o nā ʻōpū nui.

  Kūlohelohe nā Ellagitannins i nā kumuwaiwai e like me nā pomegerane, nā hua me nā strawberry, nā raspberry, nā cloudberry a me nā blackberry, nā hua waina muscadine, ʻalemona, guavas, kī, a me nā nati e like me nā walnuts a me nā chestnuts a me nā mea inu ʻelemakule no ka waina ʻulaʻula a me ka whiskey mai nā barela ʻoka.

No laila hiki iā mākou ke hoʻopau i nā meaʻai urolithin A a me nā meaʻai urolithin B nā meaʻai waiwai ellagitannin. He mea pono e hoʻomaopopo he palena palena loa ka ellagitannin bioavailability ʻoiai ʻo kāna metabolites lua (urolithins) hiki ke bioavailable.

Hoʻololi ka laha Urolithins a me ka hana i waena o nā kānaka āpau mai ka hoʻohuli ʻana mai nā ellagitannins i ka hilinaʻi i ka microbiota i ka ʻōpū. Aia kekahi mau koʻohune kikoʻī e pili ana i kēia hoʻohuli a ʻokoʻa i waena o kēlā me kēia kanaka kahi kiʻekiʻe, haʻahaʻa a loaʻa ʻole kahi microbiota kūpono. Hoʻololi pū kekahi nā kumuwaiwai i kā lākou pae ellagitannins. No laila, ʻokoʻa nā pono kūpono o ellagitannins mai kekahi kanaka a i kekahi.

Nā Pākuʻi Urolithin A a me B

ʻO Urolithin A mau mea hoʻopihapiha a me nā mea kōkua Urolithin B e ʻike maʻalahi ʻia ma ka makeke e like me nā mea kōkua waiwai waiwai ellagitannin. Loaʻa koke ʻia nā mea kōkua Urolithin A. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā pomeraite pomeraite ua kūʻai nui ʻia a hoʻohana ʻia me ka kūleʻa. Hoʻokomo ʻia kēia mau mea hoʻopihapiha mai nā hua a i ʻole nā ​​nati a hana ʻia i loko o ka wai a i ʻole ka pauka.

Ma muli o nā ʻano like ʻole o ka hoʻomeamea ellagitannins i nā meaʻai like ʻole, kūʻai ka poʻe kūʻai aku o urolithin iā ia e noʻonoʻo nei i ke kumu meaʻai. Pili ka mea like ke ʻimi ʻana no ka pauka urolithin B a i ʻole nā ​​mea hoʻopili wai.

ʻO nā haʻawina olakino kanaka i mālama ʻia me ka urolithin A kaola a i ʻole B ʻaʻole i hōʻike i nā hopena ʻino loa mai ka lawelawe ʻana i kēia mau mea hoʻopiha.

Reference:

  1. Garcia-Muñoz, Cristina; Vaillant, Fabrice (2014-12-02). "Metabolic Fate of Ellagitannins: Nā hopena no ke olakino, a me nā ʻike noiʻi no nā meaʻai pono hana hou". Nā loiloi koʻikoʻi i ka ʻepekema meaʻai a me ka meaʻai kūpono.
  2. ʻO Bialonska D, Kasimsetty SG, Khan SI, Ferreira D (11 Nowemapa 2009). "ʻO Urolithins, nā metabolites microbial ʻōpū o nā Pomegranate ellagitannins, hōʻike i ka hana antioxidant mana i loko o kahi hoʻowalewale pūnaewele". ʻO J Agric Meaʻai Kemika.
  3. Bodwell, Graham; Pottie, Ian; Nandaluru, Penchal (2011). "He Inverse Electron-Demand Diels-Alder-Based Total Synthesis o Urolithin M7".